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PostgreSQL Reader configuration.

The DBConvert Streams platform offers support for ingesting data from PostgreSQL databases. It provides two options for data ingestion, depending on the chosen reader mode.

CDC reading mode

Transaction Log Change Data Capture

In the first CDC mode, DBConvert Streams can ingest data from PostgreSQL using Write-Ahead Logs (WALs). By analyzing the WALs, the platform can capture the changes made to the database, including INSERT, UPDATE, and DELETE operations. This approach ensures accurate and comprehensive data ingestion by capturing row-level events directly from the database's transaction logs.

DBS PostgreSQL Reader uses Logical Replication that was introduced in PostgreSQL 10 to capture changes in a Postgres database.

Data change Events consumed from logical decoding stream are then sent to the DBConvert Event Hub.

Please read the PostgreSQL Change Data Capture (CDC) article on our blog for a deeper understanding of Postgres CDC.

Incoming INSERT, UPDATE, and DELETE events from WAL transaction logs are decoded using the standard logic decoding plugin pgoutput, which is shipped with PostgreSQL natively.

Conversion mode.

Alternatively, DBConvert Streams can read data directly from the tables in the PostgreSQL database. This method involves extracting data records from the source tables without relying on the WALs. It provides a more direct way of accessing the data for further processing.

Conversion mode is specifically designed for one-time data transfers, such as database migration or consolidation, where the focus is on moving the existing data from the source PostgreSQL database to the target database. When operating in conversion mode with PostgreSQL, DBConvert Streams directly reads the data from the tables of the source database. It establishes a connection to the PostgreSQL database using the provided connection details, such as the host, port, username, password, and database name.

DBConvert Streams performs schema discovery to understand the structure of the tables and retrieves the data in chunks to optimize performance.

During the conversion process, DBConvert Streams handles data type conversions, ensuring that the data from PostgreSQL is appropriately transformed to match the target database's requirements. It maps the source and target schemas, accommodating differences in table structures, column names, or data types.

Supported Databases.

PostgreSQL Reader supports the following databases:

  • PostgreSQL 10 and higher.
  • CockroachDB

PostgreSQL CDC server configuration.

If you plan to read data in conversion mode, skip this specific configuration. Configuration settings related to reading data from Postgres WALs or setting up CDC mode are not necessary when operating in conversion mode.

To set up logical replication, enable WAL on the self-hosted (generic) PostgreSQL server :

postgresql.conf settings.

Modify the PostgreSQL configuration file postgresql.conf, usually found in the /etc/postgresql/\<version\>/main/ folder on Linux.

wal_levellogicalThe logical is required to record information required for log-based replication.
max_replication_slots5max_replication_slots value should be equal to or higher than the number of PostgreSQL connectors that use WAL plus the number of other replication slots your database uses.
max_wal_senders10max_wal_senders parameter specifies the maximum number of concurrent connections to the WAL, which is at least twice the number of logical replication slots. For example, if your database uses 5 replication slots, the max_wal_senders value must be 10 or greater.

You must whitelist the IP address of the DBS source server to allow connection to the Postgres server from DBConvert Streams.

In the postgresql.conf file, add DBConvert Streams IP addresses or * for the listen_addresses parameter to allow connections from all IP addresses.

PostgreSQL database configuration file.

pg_hba.conf is the PostgreSQL client authentication configuration file. This file is usually located along the path: /etc/postgresql/\<version\>/main/ A short synopsis of the actual pg_hba.conf file follows.

This file defines: which hosts can connect as authenticated clients, which PostgreSQL usernames they can use, which databases they can access.

Edit pg_hba.conf and add the following records, replacing <IP address> with the DBS Source Server IP address. \<user\> can beall`, or an existing user name.

local   replication     <user>            <IP address>/0          trust


host    replication     all               trust

Make sure you have DBConvert Streams IPs or to allow all IPs to connect.

host         all      <user>                md5

If you have a multi-node cluster, add an entry for each DBS PostgreSQL Reader.

Enable access to WALs

Once you have completed the above steps, do the following:

  1. Restart PostgreSQL for the changes to take effect.
  2. Grant access to WALs to the database user:
alter role <user> with replication;
alter role <user> with login;

Note: Remember to replace <user> with the intended user.

PostgreSQL CDC reader properties.

Before using this adapter, PostgreSQL Server must be configured as described above.

An example PostgreSQL reader configuration with a description of each property is shown below:

"source": {
    "mode": "cdc",
    "type": "postgresql",
    "connection": "postgres://postgres:postgres@localhost:5432/postgres?sslmode=verify-ca&sslrootcert=../../config/postgresql/certs/ca.crt&sslkey=../../config/postgresql/certs/client.key&sslcert=../../config/postgresql/certs/client.crt",
    "settings": {
      "replicationSlotName": "dbconvert_replication_slot",
      "publicationName": "dbconvert_publication"
    "filter": {
      "tables": [
        { "name": "private.products1", "operations": ["insert", "update", "delete"]},
        { "name": "products2", "operations": ["insert", "update", "delete"]}

General configuration options such as type and filter/tables are described in Source Configuration.

Example of source configuration for convert mode.

"source": {
    "mode": "convert",
    "type": "postgresql",
    "connection": "postgres://postgres:postgres@localhost:5432/postgres"

Multiple schemas support for PostgeSQL.

Note Public Schema is used by default unless another schema is specified in the configuration. Thus, in the example above, products2 is equivalent to public.products2. Names are case-sensitive.

Specify source table names as <schema>.<table> to return changed data from a table that is in other than Public schema.

PostgreSQL-specific options.

Connection string.

The connection string sets up a connection to a PostgreSQL server.

# Example DSN
user=postgres password=passw0rd port=5432 dbname=mydb
# Example URL
postgres://postgres:[email protected]:5432/mydb

The connection can be in URL format or keyword = value format (DSN style). See for details.

If the connection is empty, PostgreSQL Reader will try to read the connection parameters from the environment. If no password is specified, it will try to read the .pgpass file.

The following environment variables are currently recognized, and their parameter equivalents are passed through the database URL or DSN:


See for details on the meaning of environment variables.

See for parameter names. This is usually, but not always, the environment variable's name in lowercase and without the "PG" prefix.

Timeout parameters.

Both pool_max_conn_idle_time and pool_max_conn_lifetime can be used to manage the resources used by a connection pool and prevent connections from consuming resources for an extended period of time.

ParameterDefault ValueDescription
pool_max_conn_idle_time30mThe maximum amount of time that a connection in a connection pool can remain idle before it is closed.
pool_max_conn_lifetime1hThe duration after a connection is created when it will be automatically closed.

It can be useful to adjust the pool_max_conn_idle_time and pool_max_conn_lifetime parameters in cases where the time between transactions is longer than 30 minutes, and you need to keep the connection alive for a longer period of time. For example, if you have a long-running process that only performs transactions every hour or so, you may need to increase these parameters to ensure that the connection remains open and available for use.

TLS/SSL Connection settings.

To enable an SSL encrypted connection, specify the SSL options in the connection string as follows:

# Example DSN
user=postgres password=passw0rd port=5432 dbname=mydb sslmode=verify-ca sslrootcert=/path_to/ca.crt sslkey=/path_to/client.key sslcert=/path_to/client.crt

# Example URL
postgres://postgres:[email protected]:5432/mydb?sslmode=verify-ca&sslrootcert=/path_to/ca.crt&sslkey=/path_to/client.key&sslcert=/path_to/client.crt

PostgreSQL CDC source specific params. (optional)

By default, you do not need to explicitly specify the replicationSlotName and publicationName parameters. They are set up when you start the Postgres reader. However, if you want to customize the names Replication Slot and Publication Name add the appropriate parameters to the source configuration.

propertytypedefault valuedescription
replicationSlotNamestringdbconvert_replication_slotThe name of the replication slot to create. The replication slot makes the PostgreSQL CDC available.
publicationNamestringdbconvert-publicationA publication is a group of tables whose data changes are intended to be replicated via logical replication.

General PostgreSQL server configuration.

PGTune calculates a PostgreSQL configuration tailored for maximum performance on specific hardware but emphasizes that it isn't a one-size-fits-all solution, as optimal settings depend on factors like database size, client numbers, and query complexity.

Explore PGTune's capabilities and generate PostgreSQL configurations based on their hardware at PGTune.

DBConvert Streams - event driven replication for databases